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Title: Social Rehabilitation & Inclusive design – Lessons for Habitat Development (post – tsunami reconstruction) Vol I (Seminar I, Technical Session I).
Authors: Patnaik, Alok
Keywords: Socially sustainable reconstruction.
Social and technical considerations.
Livelihood linkage.
Action areas.
Stakeholders' participation.
Issue Date: 18-Apr-2009
Citation: Alok Patnaik, "Social Rehabilitation & Inclusive design – Lessons for Habitat Development (post – tsunami reconstruction)", Vol I (Seminar I, Technical Session I), 18 April 2009.
Abstract: The presentation discusses socio-technical components of a socially sustainable reconstruction process based on experiences from the post-tsunami reconstruction. Technical considerations for Settlement Planning have been identified as culturally sensitive-growth, potential land use; Infrastructure Planning (Access to water, Sanitation and energy, Provision of community infrastructure and public spaces), Shelter design (Spatial as well as structural efficiency to known levels of natural disasters), appropriate building materials and construction tecgnologies. Skill up-gradation in safe building construction, comprehensive project management, monitoring system, quality control, timeliness, cost efficiency, grievance redressal and feedback mechanism are necessary in sustainable reconstruction. Amoung the social considerations, community opinion on site planning, house design and develoment, community involvement in quality monitoring systems,asset management and O & M have been important. Special considerations for most vulnerable and differently-abled people, gender consideration in house design and infrastructure planning are indicative to inclusive planning. Livelihood linkage i.e. proximity to workplace and opportunity for income generation are essential for such planning. Need for environmental considerations like land use pattern, topography and natual drainage channels, and Energy and resourse optimization to reduce environmental impact have been elaborated in the paper. Specific Action Areas identified so far for a comprehensive "sustainable housing and habitat development policy for all" are Land -access and management, Definition of "minimum standards" for living, services, amenities with quality and cost parameters, Access to finance, Legal and regulatory norms/ reforms, Re-organisation of delivery mechanism, Promotion of alternate energy and appropriate building and services, and Capacity development. Lessons learnt from case studies are: building of safe and standard houses which will be assets and not liabilities in future; anticipation of societal pattern (income pattern and housing need for at-least 30 to 60 years); promotion of owner driven housing culture, "one-stop shop" concept of access to finance, technical and service support in housing and habitat for all sections of society and "housing insurance" as a mechanism of both coverage against disaster and quality. Mainstreaming alternate sources of energy and construction systems in large scale, emphasizing optimum design criteria with appropriate usage of construction material, training masons, engineers, architects, and practitioners etc. are all good strategies towards risk mitigation. Different stakeholders like NGOs, CSO, Academic institutes, Research agencies, corporate sector, Finance institutions, Bilateral agencies, Government (Central and State) need to work together for successful reconstruction.
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